A first tempo set in the middle of the court just in front of the setter.
Giving with the ball as it is contacted by the passer. (Cushioning) It can take place with certain parts of the body or with the entire body. Using a cushioning effect with the momentum of the ball’s rebound enough to carry it forward or upward with little if any backswing or follow through.
A serve that results directly in a point, usually when the ball hits the floor untouched on the receiving team’s side of the court.
Thin poles attached to the net cables placed above the sideline. A ball touching the antennae or their extensions is out of bounds. Balls passing within the antennae are still in play.
Helping a teammate set up for a kill.
n. the offense
v. any method used to return the ball across the net in an attempt to score. The act of jumping into the air to hit the ball from above the level of the net into the opponent’s court
Also “hitter” and “spiker.” A player who attempts to hit a ball offensively with the purpose of terminating play.
The defensive team’s attempt to block a spiked ball.
An attack botched in one of 5 ways: ball lands out of bounds; ball goes into net; attacker commits center line or net violation or attacker illegally contacts ball.
A line 3 meters/10 feet away from, and parallel to, the net. Separates the front-row players from the back-row players. A back-row player cannot legally attack the ball above the net unless he takes off from behind this line.
A hitter’s “window” in which he/she is capable of attacking a ball in control.
Space from baseline (endline) to attack line. There are 3 players whose court positions are in this area (positions 1, 6 & 5 on court)
A violation committed when a back court player jumps with their foot touching any part of the 3 meter line (or its extension) and attacks a ball above the height of the net. The violation is also committed when a libero hand sets from in front of the 3 meter line and someone jumps to attack it.
A violation committed when a back row player contacts an attacked ball from the other team above the height of the net.
(back court player) Left Back (LB); Middle Back (MB); Right Back (RB) – according to the serving order. (Serving order positions 5, 6 and 1.)
A type of overhand pass used in setting the ball in a backward direction.
Execution of any passing fundamental
The back boundary of the court. Also called the end line
A play by one or more front line players who attempt to intercept the ball just before or as it crossed the net. It can stop, obstruct or decrease the intensity of the opponent’s attack
Touching the net, crossing the centerline, blocking a set or serve or any other “local” violation that occurs while making a block attempt.
-ATTACK BLOCK (HARD BLOCK, OFFENSIVE BLOCK)
1 – returning the ball immediately to the attacker’s court
2 – usually in this type of block, the arms and hands are extended over the net. IT is usually used when the opponent’s sets are tight on the net.
-AREA BLOCK (SOFT BLOCK, DEFENSIVE BLOCK)
1 – deflecting the ball so that it can be played by a teammate. This type of block protects a defensive area of the court.
2 – blocking with arms and hands extended straight upward. Utilized when a blocker is late or when the opponent’s set is far from the net. It is also used when an attacker is considerably higher than the blocker.
See PASS and FOREARM PASS
A four-inch line in width, located directly under the net and running to the sidelines. It divides the court into two equal halves. The international center line is two inches in width.
CHANGE OF PACE
See SOFT SPIKE
CLOSING THE BLOCK
The responsibility of the assisting blocker(s) to angle their body relative to the first blocker.
A defensive move made from side to side. Player extends into a side lunge, passes the ball and his/her momentum carries him/her to the floor on the side of their thigh/butt.
A strategy in blocking where a blocker’s sole focus is one attacker, jumping with them whether they get set or not. Most commonly used by middle blockers.
COMPLETE (FULL) ROLL
The area 30 by 60 feet, which is divided by a center line into two equal halves of 30 by 30 feet, within which the game of volleyball is played. Internationally 9 meters x 18 meters.
The assignment of each player on offense or defense as the ball is in play.
Refers to the hitter having his/her teammates ready to retrieve rebounds from the opposing blockers.
A ball hit into the opponent’s court in a diagonal direction. Also called an angle hit.
CROSSING THE CENTER LINE
See FOOT FAULT.
A spike that is hit at a sharp angle toward the side-line.
1 – CUT (See SERVING ORDER POSITIONS for international ZONE numbers) Ex: A player spiking from zone 4 would hit the ball towards zone 4 on the other side. A player hitting from zone 2 would hit the ball towards zone 2 on the other side.
2 – CUT-BACK: a hit going back across the spiker’s body. Ex: A player hitting from zone2 would hit towards zone 5.
A ball not in play following a point, side-out or any other decision of the referee temporarily suspending play.
Refers to sending the ball away from the net, toward the baseline of the opponent’s court.
The action by a team when the ball is controlled by its opponents. Defense is primarily a matter of team tactics. However, there are certain individual techniques which attempt to convert the defense to the offense. These include the block, the dig, the dive and the roll.
Similar to the libero but with much fewer restrictions, a defensive specialist is used to receive serve or strictly defend. Utilized for their above average ball control, they must follow normal substitution rules. They are permitted to serve and attack the ball from above the height of the net when they are in the backrow. Should the need arise, they can rotate to the front court and play as a front row player if required.
1 – The recovery of an opponent’s spike, made by playing the ball with one or two hands.
2 – A contact of the ball below the waistline with a solid surface formed by the forearms of the heels of the hand. It is used to meet forcefully propelled balls (from serves to spikes) with a cushioning effect (See ABSORPTION). Often a player falls back (half rolls) as he contacts the ball.
1 – An attack in which the ball is hit with relatively little force from the fingertips or wrist.
2 – A faked spike in which the attacking player merely placed the ball on the opposite side of net over the out-stretched hands of the waiting blockers.
A defensive technique employed to increase the forward range of motion (ZONE OF EFFECTIVENESS).
DIVE AND CATCH
The defensive player dives forward, recovers a difficult shot and then lands on his chest and abdomen after being cushioned by his arms and hands.
DIVE AND SLIDE
The defensive player dives forward, recovers a difficult shot and then touches the floor with his hands and arms, and by their impetus slides forward on his chest and abdomen. This is the who cushioning effect. Most of the energy of the impact is transferred into the sliding motion.
Two players working in unison to intercept a ball at the net.
Two hits by the same player separated by the time interval. The legality is embodied in a number of rules, some of which make the double-hit legal and others illegal. A common call by the referee happens when the ball out of a player's hands comes out in a spinning motion.
A ball which is attacked so weakly that the defnse has a higher percentage recovery by digging rather than blocking. This should be distinguished from a “free-ball.” "Down" is a call for the blockers to stay down and not jump.
A spike directly down the sideline, the sideline from which the spiker is hitting the ball.
A common error by blockers. There is undue lateral body movement, as opposed to the desired vertical jump.
Usually performed by the setter, who delivers the ball into the opponent’s court on the second contact.
The lines two inches in width running parallel to the net and 30 feet (9 meters) from it. They define the ends of the court.
A defensive move where the player extends to his/her left or right
An offensive system that uses five hitters and one setter.
See OVERHAND PASS.
A ball hit in such a manner that there is little or no spin imparted to it. Such a hit causes the ball to unpredictably weave or float in the air.
See SERVING ORDER POSITIONS.
To move with and block an attacker. Athletes may change positions with another blocker in the process.
An illegal placement of the feet with respect to court lines.
1- SERVING FOOT FAULT (Server): Server’s last contact with the floor, as he strikes the ball, must be within the serving area (and behind the end line).
2- SERVING FOOT FAULT (Other players): All the players, other than the server have to be within the boundaries of the court, but may touch the boundary lines
3- CROSSING THE CENTER LINE – The player may cross the center line so long as a part of the body remains in contact with the center line and the action does not interfere with play or cause a safety concern (discretion by the referee).
A ball played off the forearms in an underhand manner. The forearms, (UNDERHAND PASS, BUMP) held away from the body, will act as a surface from which the pass can be made. It is used to play served balls, hard-driven spikes and any loose balls dropping near the floor. Usually, this pass is the first contact by a team within its own court.
A rule infraction, also called a violation.
A team foul resulting from the ball being hit four times on one side of the net during a normal play.
FOUR-TWO (4-2) OFFENSE
An offensive system consisting of a line-up of four spikers and two setters. The setter is one of the front-line players who normally rotates into the middle front position after the serve.
A non-spiked return of a ball by the opponent that should be easily handled and turned into an offensive play. This should be distinguished from a “down-ball.” Generally speaking a free ball travels in an upward trajectory as it crosses the net.
The area from the net back to the line 10 feet from the net.
A type of overhand pas used in setting the ball in a forward direction, i.e. the direction that the person setting the ball is facing.
FRONT-LINE (FRONT ROW) PLAYER
Left – front (LF), Middle Front (MF), and Right Front (RF): according to the serving order. (Serving order positions 2,3 and 4).
A game is won when a team wins the majority of the Sets scheduled to be played. This can be either 3-out-of-5 if 5 sets are scheduled to be played or 2-out-of-3 if 3 sets are scheduled to be played
Offensive and defensive emphasis for an opponent. Usually organized for each rotation by the coaching staff.
See SOFT SPIKE.
See “lift”. A ball that comes to rest during contact resulting in a violation.
One of the 6 basic skills. To jump and strike the ball with an overhand, forceful shot.
Also “spiker” or “attacker.” The player who is responsible for hitting the ball.
A statistic derived from total kills minus total attack errors, divided by total attempts.
A serve initiated as if performing a jump float, but the server has option of floating it, hitting with top spin, or a partial top spin.
IN BACK OF THE BLOCK
1 – A defensive area of the back court which is behind the block or directly screened out by the block. Tactically this is an area which the defensive player does not expect to dig a hard driven spike.
2- The defensive area of the back court between those areas designated as OUTSIDE THE BLOCK and INSIDE THE BLOCK.
IN- BOUNDS (GOOD BALL)
1- A ball landing inside or touching the line of the court.
2- ball passing over the net inside of the antennae.
INSIDE THE BLOCK
1 – An attack play resulting in the ball traveling between the block and net.
2 – A cross-court shot evading the block.
3 – The defensive area of the back court which is cross court from the spiker and lies between the areas screened out by the block and the far side line.
INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL FEDERATION (FIVB)
Headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland, founded in 1947. Responsible for all international volleyball (both beach and indoor) rules and competitions.
When 2 opposing players contact the ball simultaneously above the net causing the ball to momentarily come to rest; the point is replayed if this is called by the official.
A set made by a player who has jumped off of the floor.
JUMP SERVE - TOPSPIN
The server initiates this serve with a high toss as if setting himself. An approach is used to attack the serve giving it the appearance of a spike.
JUMP SERVE - FLOAT
The server takes an approach similar footwork as an attack approach and contacts the center of the ball so it travels with little to no spin.
To discern a team’s best player or probable next play by observation of patterns or habits.
A spike that cannot be returned and thus directly results in a point or side-out for the spiking team.
A set made in which the setter’s shoulders are approximately parallel to the direction of the path of the ball. Normally, the setter’s shoulders are approximately perpendicular to the path of the ball.
A serve contacting the net and continuing into play. Under old rule systems, let serves were a loss of rally and serve was given to receiving team. Nowadays the served ball may touch the net on its way over and the rally continues.
An Italian word meaning “free,” is a defensive player designated by a contrasting colored jersey who can come on and off the court for any back-row player. Their main responsibilities include receiving serve and playing defense. Rules limit them from overhead setting in front of the 3-meter line and attacking a ball above the plane of the net. Liberos may serve under certain rule systems and may not in others.
A foul in which the ball visibly comes to rest on some part of the body.
The marks that serve as boundaries of a court. 2 inches (5cm) wide.
A ball which hits the line. It is considered to be in bounds.
LINE OF FORCE
Many techniques, when executed properly, require a virtual straight line between the lowest extremity of the body (the average foot position when setting and the “opposite leg” when spiking), the center of gravity of the body and point of contact with the ball. The initial flight of a set should follow the line of force. The initial flight of a spike should be perpendicular to the line of force.
See DOWN THE LINE SHOT
The official positioned at the end of the court, responsible for indicated whether a ball is inbounds or out of bounds.
Body position for the blockers so that they are most effective.
The best of two of three, or the best three out of five sets.
A system of blocking where teams manipulate the positions of their front row players to gain an advantage on the other teams attackers. For example: A left side attacker may be blocking in the middle, a middle blocker on the right, and the setter on the left.
MIDDLE-BACK DEEP DEFENSE (WHITE OR PERIMETER DEFENSE)
A defensive formation displaying two blockers at the net and four men in a cup formation near the court perimeter. The middle back is at the end-line and is responsible for all the deep shots.
MIDDLE-BACK-UP DEFENSE (RED)
A defensive formation displaying two blockers at the net, one player (the middle back) right behind the block and the three remaining players near the court perimeter. The middle back is responsible for all dinks.
Normally a team will display all three of their front court players in preparation to block the opponent’s attack, even though only one or two players may block. The MIDDLE BLOCKER is that blocker who is deployed between the other two blockers as the team is ready to block.
A defensive system that uses the middle-back player in 6 to cover tips or short shots along the 3 meter/10 foot line. Also called a “6 up” defense
The original name of the game of volleyball, created by William Morgan.
MULTIPLE OFFENSE (6-0 or three hitter attack)
An offensive system in which all three front court players are expected to attack and a back row player is used as the setter. A three spiker offense in which the ball is set by a back-row player.
NET – n.
The basic dividing plane between two halves of the court. The volleyball net is 36 inches wide and 32 feet long. It is made of cord meshes 4 inches square. On top of the net is a canvas band 2 inches wide. The net height is 8 feet for men; 7 feet 4-1/4” inches for women. It is supported by a cable attached to suitable anchoring equipment.
1 – to touch the net which constitutes a foul
The non-blocking front court player is most standard defensive patterns.
The techniques and tactics by the team controlling the ball. IT includes reception of the serve (bump or forearm pass), setting and attacking (spiking) the ball. The serve is also an offensive action.
Virtually all teams run coordinate team patterns or plays much the same as a basketball or football team might run. The following are a few common examples used by teams employing a multiple offense. (Refer to ZONES OF NET AREA).
1 – OPTION FOUR: A play designed to isolate (free from blockers) the left front spiker. Left front expects a 4 set (shoot), middle front expects a 1 set (Jap) and right front expects a regular set.
2 – DOUBLE QUICK: A play designated to isolate the right front spiker. Left front expects a regular set, middle front expects a 1 set and right front expects a back set 2.
3 – X PLAY: A play designated to isolate the right front spiker hitting from the middle front position. Left front expects a regular set, center front expects a Jap set and right front takes a move similar to the double quick but then crosses, behind the CF spikes and hits a 2 set in the middle of the court.
Many times this term is defined in terms of the number of spikers and setters used. In common definition, the first number referse to the number of spikers and the second refers to the number of setters. For example:
4-2 = a system using 4 spikers and 2 setters ( a two setter attack)
3-3 = three spikers and three setters (the common system of the 1930’s, 40’s and 50’s)
6-6 = a two hitter attack; MF is always the setter – standard in physical education (gym) class procedure - an offensive system of the simplest nature. It can also have a 3-hitter attack (multiple offense) – 6 spikers, 6 setters (back row)
5-1 = five spikers and one setter (sometimes called the International 4-2 – where setter is in the RF position)
6-0 = this term has commonly been used to indicate a multiple offense (see MULTIPLE OFFENSE), in reality according to the above definition, it should be called a 6-2; six spikers – three setters
6-3 = multiple offense – six spikers - three setters. This system avoids the complications found in bringing the setter in from the left back position.
An attack that is intentionally slow. Ball spiked with less than maximum force but with spin. Also called “roll” shot.
Primarily used as a left-side attacker and primary passers in serve receive, conventional systems of play use two outside-hitters OH1 follows the setter while OH2 follows the opposite-hitter. In less conventional systems they may be utilized as swing hitters.
The act of attacking the second touch.
Player who plays opposite the setter in the rotation. In some systems, this player is also a setter. In other systems, this player is called a right-side.
Primarily used to attack from the right sight of the court. They are opposite the setter, denoted by “opposite”-hitter. This position is the most versatile on the court. This players position in the rotational order allows for this player to be a primary passer, passing from the center of the court in every rotation, primary attacker, or the ability to be hidden on the court.
A ball played from above the forehead usually with fingertips of both hands. The hands must be in such a position that the passer is able to see the back of his hands.
Serving the ball and striking it with the hand above the shoulder. Float or spin.
1 – An illegal placement of the feet with respect to the positioning of players before the ball is served.
2 – A foul committed as players stand in incorrect rotational order before the ball is served. A player’s feet may not overlap the players on either side of him or the players in front and behind him.
A first contact that is sent over the net unintentionally.
An errant set that crosses the net without being touched by another offensive player.
The controlled movement of the ball usually from one player to another on the same team. It may be either a forearm pass or an overhand pass. Usually, this term is applied to the first play of the ball after it has crossed the net and often is applied only to the serve reception (commonly called the BUMP).
An emergency defensive move where a player anticipatorally lays his/her hand on the floor (palm facing down) with the intention of having the ball bounce off his/her hand instead of the floor.
When the ball is passed across the net in front of attack line so the front-row attacker can immediately hit the ball on the first contact.
A point is awarded when an active rally is terminated, the serving team or the receiving team may win the point.
1 – The movement of a back court player into the front court for the purpose of setting. Usually this is done as the team is attempting to execute a multiple offense.
2 – The act of reaching over the net on the block.
A back-row attack from the middle of the court. Position 6.
An attack with a planned fake, usually including 2 or more hitter.
A play-over is the act of putting the ball into play again without awarding a point or side-out.
A point is awarded to the serving team only when the receiving team commits a foul. The receiving team cannot earn a point.
More than one point scored while maintaining the same server on the baseline.
The channel inside the block into which most power spikes are directed.
This level of volleyball differs from recreational volleyball in the amount of organization necessary for the highly refined application of team strategy and individual skills. Power volleyball demands a quick and alert, extremely well-coordinated athlete, with great stamina to master its complex skills and playing situations.
The act of playing a ball that has traveled outside of the antenae onto the other side of the net and played back to correct side.
An extremely low vertical set used to beat the opponent’s block. Can be set at any position on the net.
The chain of events while the ball is in play. The rally begins with the service and ends when the ball is dead (unless there is a question of equilibrium following the dead ball).
RANGE OF MOTION (ZONE of EFFECTIVENESS)
That part of the playing area in which the player has high probability of making a successful play.
Unlike sideout scoring where points can only be scored by the serving team, points are scored on each dead ball in rally-scoring whether the team is serving or receiving. This rule was first introduced in 1999 by FIVB (international volleyball federation).
A system of blocking where the blockers wait and react to the set ball, cueing on clues from the setter while judging the trajectory off the set ball.
The body position of a player as he anticipates executing a particular technique.
Given by the official to a player or coach for flagrant misconduct resulting in a point/side out to the opponent. Results in automatic ejection and a point/side out for the opponent.
See MIDDLE BACK UP DEFENSE
The head or chief official, positioned with a view across the top of the net. Also called the 1st referee.
A defensive technique often employed to increase the sideward range of motion (ZONE OF EFFECTIVENESS).
- FULL (COMPLETE) ROLL – The defensive player lunges sideward, recovers a difficult shot then rolls (360 degrees) over the back and shoulder to regain a defensive position.
- HALF-ROLL – A player falls to his back, reverses directions and comes up on his feet again.
To block a spike, usually straight down for a point.
The clockwise movement of players on the court after a side-out has occurred and the opponents have lost the serve.
Action used to strike the ball on a serve or spike. The ball is struck with the arm approximately fully extend which moves generally upward through a large arc of about 180 degrees.
A recover of a ball which would have hit the floor except for an extreme effort of the player, moving well beyond his normal range of coverage.
The official charged with accurately recording the score of the game.
SCREW-UNDER PASS (BUMP) (SET)
A forearm pass or an overhand set made as the passer (setter) is pivoting as he passes (sets) the ball. Usually this pass is concluded by a half roll by the passer.
The mid-point between 2 players.
One of the 6 basic skills. Used to put the ball into play. It is the only skill controlled exclusively by one player.
An area that is equal in width to the baseline and extends infinitely deep behind the endline. The service area shall be a minimum of six feet in depth. In the event that the playing area does not provide space for such a depth, the service area should extend into the court to whatever distance is necessary to provide the minimum six feet.
SERVING FOOT FAULT (SERVER) and (OTHER PLAYERS)
See FOOT FAULT
SERVING ORDER POSITIONS (FLOOR POSITIONS)
Starting from the first server, they are Right Back (RB-1), Middle Back (MB-2), Left Back (LB-3), Left Front (LF-4), Middle Front (MF-5), Right Front (RF-6). Serving order should be (RB-1), (RF-2), (MF-3), (LF-4), (LB 5), (MB-6).
A player who is substituted into the match with the sole purpose of serving. After receiving team sides out, the serving specialist is promptly removed from the match
To win a set, a team must score 25 points and be ahead by at least 2 points. If the score reaches 24-24 or 14-14 in the 5th set (3rd set under some rule systems), play continues until the winner achieves a two point advantage. However, it is sometimes necessary to use time limits or other maximum scores to determine the winner.
When a setter attempts to score rather than set the ball to a setter. Also called a shoot set. Setter: The second passer whose job it is to position a pass to the hitter.
The definitions here refer to setting zones:
1 – A low set, usually in the center of the net (zone #5), that travels nearly straight up and is quickly hit by the spiker who is already in the air. It is hit just above the net as it leaves the setter’s hands. Ideally, it is set in such a manner that a spiker attacks the ball while ascending.
2 – A medium low set that travels nearly straight up from the setter’s hands to a height 2 or 3 feet above the net.
3 – A medium set traveling 2-4 feet above the netand coming down half way between the setter and spiker; sometimes used interchangeably with the 31 set (See 31 SET).
Regular Set – A high set coming down near the sideline (vertical tape marker).
4 SET (SHOOT SET) – A medium low set traveling 2-4 feet above the net and coming down near the sideline.
31 SET – A low, very quick set (usually in zone #3) just above the net.
The player assigned to set the ball into the air for the purpose of placing the ball in position for the attack.
SET THE BLOCK
In most defensive patterns, a particular person will be designated to position the block on any specific offensive player. The player designated to position the block on any specific offensive player. The player designated to position the block has the assignment to SET the BLOCK.
See ZONES OF NET AREA.
An adjustment before a rally by blockers. Blockers take one or two steps to either sideline to give themselves a small advantage on an attacker they think may be set.
Near the net.
Severely misdirected pass.
A tactic in which the server serves the ball into zone 2, 3, or 4 (right front, middle front and left front respectively) preferably inside of the 3-meter line. It is designed to upset a team’s offense by pulling attackers out of an ideal position for an approach.
Side-out occurs when the receiving team wins the point, giving them the serve. In rally-scoring, the team is awarded a point, unlike in side-out scoring.
The two lines running the length of the court (60 feet in length) which are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the net. They are two inches in width.
Being hit in the face with the ball.
An offense with four spikers and two spiker/setters. Setter comes from the back row.
A quick attack behind the setter.
SOFT SPIKE (HALF SPEED SHOT, OFF-SPEED SHOT, CHANGE OF PACE)
A spike made with considerable less force than a normal spike, often very carefully placed. It is used to gain some tactical advantage.
SPIKE (HITTER, ATTACKER)
1 – A forceful method of returning the ball across the net. Usually the third contact by a team within its own court.
2 – The act of jumping in the air and hitting a set ball from above the level of the net.
A position taken by the offensive players as the spiker spikes the ball, so as to field any ball rebounding from the block.
The offensive player driving the ball over the net (spiking) in to the opponent’s court.
A team tactic in which there is an intentionally wide space left between the blockers. The space may often be from 1-4 feet.
A defensive move where a player places his/her forearms on the floor, while moving forward or side to side, preventing the ball from contacting the floor. When finished, if executed correctly, the player will be sprawled out on his/her stomach.
STRONG SIDE (ON SIDE)
These are terms indicating spiking or attack zones along the net. The strong side is the left hand side of the net for a right handed spiker and the right side of the net for a left handed spiker.
A ball deflected back to the attacking team’s floor by the opponent’s blockers.
The act of one player entering the game to replace another player.
A rhythm timed blocking method, where the blockers begin “bunched” into the middle of the court and turning, dropping their hands and swinging them like the back swing of an approach. arms to play a ball finishing on the side of his/her hips and torso.
Developed by Bill Neville and Doug Beal for the 1984 Olympics, the swing offense utilizes one or two swing hitters who are capable of hitting multiple sets in multiple net zones. They are used to fool blockers by rarely hitting the same set twice. They may pass a ball on the left side of the net and attack a ball on the right.
An intentional strategic interchange of positions on the court. It can take place only after the ball is contacted by the server. Generally switching occurs amongst the players that are in the same zones of the court, i.e. back row players switching with back row players only, front row players switching with front row players only.
A combination in which one player attacks immediately behind another.
The top of the net.
A group of six players on one half of the court.
The coordinated pattern of a team either on offense or on defnse.
A spiker who also functions as a secondary setter.
See MULTIPLE OFFENSE.
To show one’s intention to the opponents.
The line extended across the court to signify the point which a back-row player must leave the ground behind to attack the ball. Also call “attack line” and 10-foot line
A one-handed, soft hit into the opponent’s court using the fingertips. Also called a dink.
The act of attacking a ball intentionally off the blockers hands/forearms to earn a point
A forward spin imparted to the ball during the serve or spike.
An international term for the set, similarly tosser means setter.
A player contacting the ball on the defensive play.
The trajectory of an object, such as a ball, must follow the path of a parabola unless object is subject to outside forces. There are two types of deviations which commonly act upon the parabolic arc of a volleyball:
1 – Any spin placed upon the ball causes the deviation to be in a predictable direction
2 – Any non-spinning ball may deviate from the theoretical path in an unpredictable manner.
The movement of a team as it changes from one team pattern to another. Normally the term is applied as a team changes from offense to defense or from defense to offense.
Using the 3 available blockers all at once to block an attacker. Usually occurs on out of system sets where the setter’s intentions are clear early. Also used to stop a dominant attacker.
A term commonly applied when playing the 4-2 or 6-6 offenses. See OFFENSIVE SYSTEMS.
The governing body of the volleyball in the United States.
Official who assists the referee and is positioned on the floor opposite the referee.
See FOREARM PASS
A serve performed with an underhand striking action. The ball is usually contacted with the heel of the hand.
UNITED STATES VOLLEYBALL ASSOCIATION (USVBA)
Founded in 1928. Headquarters in San Fransisco, CA. An association of approximately 20 organizations which sponsor major volleyball activities. Represents volleyball on the U.S. Olympic Committees.
VERTICAL TAPE MARKERS
A 2 inch strip of material (tape of canvas) fastened vertically on each side of the net, directly above the side lines and marking the side boundary lines of the court.
W SERVE-RECEIVE FORMATION
Three players in the front row, two in the back.
Attacking a ball, whether on a spike or a serve, with no spin that travels far outside of the court.
WEAK SIDE (OFF-SIDE) (OFF-HAND)
These are terms indicating spiking or attack zones along the net. The weak side is the right hand side of the net for a right handed spiker and the left side of the net for a left handed spiker.
See MIDDLE- BACK DEEP DEFENSE.
WIPE / WIPE OFF SHOT
A spike that is deliberately deflected off the blocker’s hands. Often a soft spike.
Given by the official to a player or coach as a warning of misconduct. Two yellow cards result in an automatic red card.
ZONE OF EFFECTIVENESS
See RANGE OF MOTION.
ZONES OF THE NET AREA (SETTING ZONES)
The net is divided into a symmetrical system of nine zones (passing target zone #7). Click here to see a PDF visual of all nine zones.
In this system, the height of the set is designated by the second digit. The first digit indicates the zone in which the set is begun.
For example: A 23 set will be in zone 2, 3 feet above the net at the peak of its arc. A 68 set will be in zone 6, 8 feet above the net at the peak of its arc. Note – When 0 is the second digit – the set is a normal high set; when 9 is the second digit – the set is a super high set.
For example: 10 is a regular set in Zone 1 while 99 is a super-high set in Zone 9. If these numbers are followed by a third number (23-3), this third number indicates how far the set should be from the net. An 82-1 is Zone 8, two feet high and one foot away from the net. This system is now commonly used by the U.S. National Team.