Every high-level coach identifies long and short-term goals alongside his team to create stepping stones to success, and Mark Rosen of the University of Michigan is no exception. While Rosen advocates for specific planning, he also says that successful coaches need to be flexible throughout the season. If his team struggles with passing one weekend, Rosen’s practice plan for Monday will shift in order to focus on that skill. A recent strategy Rosen adopted is writing the practice plan on the board so players can mentally prepare for what lies ahead each day. Another strategy Rosen uses is called “pre-practice,” a half-hour period where players can focus on skills they want to work on without overbearing structure. This interim period also allows players to shift from a school or social mindset to a volleyball mindset. In each practice Rosen include the following sections: pre-practice, warm-up, skill development, competition and recovery.